0-4 months: 50-300 ml/day urine production
0-7 years: PMI (point of maximum impulse of heart) located at 3rd or 4th intercostal space, just left of midclavicular line
0-2 years: respiration rate 24 to 34 respirations per minute
0-1 years: pulse rate 135 ± 3.1
0-1 years: blood pressure 90 ± 25 systolic, 61 ± 19 diastolic
0-1 years: pulse 70-180, respiration 30-40
0-1 years: temperature : 99.6F rectal, 98.6F oral, 97.4F axillary
0-1 years: PaO2 85-100, PaCO2 35-45
0-15 months: eliminates urine & feces automatically; may need up to 30 diapers a day as newborn
0-2 1/2 years: naps easily
2 months: weight gain between 1 lb. 4 oz. and 1 lb. 12 oz.
2 months: height gain of 2 inches
2 months: a 1-inch increase of head circumference
2 months: closure of posterior fontanel
2 months: doll’s eye reflex, dance reflex, crawling reflex, and walking reflex disappearing. Rooting reflex weakens.
Doll’s eye reflex: when the infant’s head is slowly turned, the infant’s eyes will remain stationary.
Crawling reflex: The infant will make crawling motions when placed on abdomen.
Walking reflex: when held upright and moved forward, with the soles of feet touching a surface, the infant will make a walking movement.
Rooting reflex: If the cheek is stroked the infant will turn toward the side that was stroked and begin to make sucking motions with its mouth.
2 months: hands are frequently open
2 months: less head lag
2 months: when on stomach, able to lift head almost 45 degrees
2 months: decreased flexion of extremities while on stomach
3 months: hand grasp reflex disappears
Hand grasp reflex: The infant will try to grasp a finger placed in the infant’s open palm. Attempting to remove the finger causes the grip to tighten.
4 months: the average child should weigh 14 lb. height 25 in. (weight gain between 2 lb. 8 oz. and 3 lb. 8 oz. and a height gain of 4 inches from 2 months)
4 months – 2 years: 350-550 ml/day urine production
4 months: a 2 inch increase of head circumference from 2 month old size
4 months: Moro reflex, tonic reflex, and Perez reflex disappearing.
Moro reflex: If the infant’s body is lifted slightly and released suddenly. The infant should have a “startled” look, and fling it’s arms out sideways with the palms up and the thumbs flexed.
Asymmetric tonic reflex or fencer’s position: The tonic neck reflex is elicited when the head of a relaxed child, lying supine, is rotated to the side. The arm toward which the infant is facing extends straight away from the body with the hand partially open while the arm on the side away from the face is flexed and the fist is clenched tightly. Reversing the direction in which the face is turned reverses the position.
Perez reflex: If stroked along the spine from tail to head, baby will raise his or her head, possibly crying and wetting as well.
4 months: almost no head lag while in a sitting position
4 months: able to sit straight up if propped
4 months: able to raise head 90 degrees when placed on stomach
4 months: able to roll from back to one side
4 months: tries to reach objects with hands, but commonly overshoots
4 months: plays with rattle when placed in hands, but unable to pick it up if dropped
4 months: grasps rattle with both hands
4 months: able to place objects in mouth
5 months: Rooting reflex disappears.
5-9 months: lower central incisors (2) [deciduous]
6 months: accommodation (pupil dilation for distant objects) present
6 months: the average child should weigh 18 lb. height 26 1/2 in.
6 months: should have doubled birth weight
6 months: height gain of 6 inches
6 months: a 3-inch increase of head circumference
6 months: able to lift chest and head while on stomach bearing the weight on hand
6 months: able to sit in a high chair with a straight back
6 months: beginning of teething
6 months: increased drooling
6 months: beginning of Landau reflex
Landau reflex: when an infant is held in the prone position, the entire body forms a convex upward arc; gentle pressure on the head or gravity flexes the neck and hip, reversing the arc.
6 months: able to bear almost all weight when supported in a standing position
6 months: able to roll from back onto abdomen
6 months: able to hold own bottle
6 months: able to pick up a dropped object
6-12 months: sleeps 10-12 hours per night & 20min. to 3 hours daytime naps
7 months: Sucking reflex disappears.
Sucking reflex: when finger or nipple placed if placed in the infant’s mouth, the infant will suck.
8 months: the average child should weigh 20 lb. height 27 in.
8-12 months: upper central incisors (2) [deciduous]
8-12 months: sit up strongly without support
8-12 months: crawls and pulls himself up
8-12 months: begin to use one hand more than the other
8-12 months: begin chopped foods
8-12 months: make sounds like da-da and ma-ma
8-12 months: Foot withdrawal disappears.
Foot withdrawal: when the infant’s foot is lightly pricked with a pin, the foot withdraws with leg flexation.
9 months: weight should increase by 2 lb. 4 oz. to 3 lb. 12 oz.
9 months: height gain of 1 ½ inches since 6 months: old
9 months: bowel and bladder systems become more regulated
9 months: parachute reflex appears
Parachute reflex: If the child is held upright and the body is rotated quickly face forward as if falling. The arms are reflexively extended as if to break a fall to protect self from falling.
9 months: crawls
9 months: can remain sitting for prolonged periods
9 months: may pull self to standing position
9 months: begins preference for dominant hand
9 months: has a pincer grasp between thumb and index finger
9-12 months: plantar reflex disappears
Plantar reflex: If the sole of the foot is irritated with an object, the infant’s toes will contract.
9-12 months: neck righting reflex disappears
Neck righting reflex: The infant will rotate the truck in the direction in which the head of the supine infant is turned.
10 months: the average child should weigh 22 lb. height 29 in.
10-12 months: upper lateral incisors (2) [deciduous]
Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
2 months: searches to locate sounds
2 months: head turns from side to side with auditory stimulation at the level of the ear
2 months: beginning to visually fix on close objects
2 months: crying becomes differentiated
2 months: coos
2 months: vocal response to familiar voices
2 months: smiles in response to stimuli
4 months: close vision well established
4 months: eye-hand coordination beginning
4 months: can make the consonant sounds: n, k, p, g, b
4 months: laughs out loud
4 months: anticipates feeding when able to see a bottle (if bottle-fed)
4 months: begins to show memory
4 months: demands attention by fussing
6 months: vision has improved to between 20/60 and 20/40
6 months: can localize sounds not made in a direct plane with the ear
6 months: prefers more complex auditory stimulation
6 months: starts to imitate sounds
6 months: sounds resemble one-syllable words
6 months: enjoys hearing own voice
6 months: makes sounds to mirror and toys
6 months: begins to fear strangers
6 months: recognizes parents
6 months: begins to imitate actions
6 months: begins to realize that if an object is dropped it is still there and just needs to be picked up
9 months: development of depth perception
9 months: can respond to simple commands
9 months: understands the meaning of no
9 months: may be afraid of being left alone
Imitates familiar words
Recognizes words as symbols for objects: Car – points to garage, cat – meows
7-8 months: Responds to own name.
8-12 months: Polysyllabic babbling.
12 months: Understands simple instructions
0-1 month Indefinite gaze at surroundings. Listens to sounds. Watches Mother’s face when she feeds or talks to him.
3-4 months: Spontaneous smile. Brings hands together and watches them. Pulls clothes over face when he plays. Recognizes feeding bottle. Shows preference for primary caregiver
5-6 months: Puts everything in mouth. Plays with toes and grasps feet. Pats bottle with both hands when being fed. Smiles or talks to image in mirror.
7-8 months: Pats image of self in mirror. Feeds self cracker. Holds bottle.
9-10 months: Plays peekaboo. Puts hands around cup. Shows shyness, fear of strangers, and clings to familiar persons. May not want to be left by mother.
12 months: Waves good-bye. Cooperative with dress. Holds arm or leg out. Gives toys upon request. Drinks from cup without help.